On the 40th anniversary of the Internet in November 2009, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers
(ICANN), the governing body of the Internet, approved a new standard for fully internationalized domain names that use characters outside the range of the capital and small Roman letters from A to Z, the Arabic numbers of 0–9, and the hyphens as used in the English language (Cooper, 2008). Theoretically, international domain names consisting entirely of native character sets tend to benefit local companies and people who only speak their local languages and improve access to the Internet.
Domain names, textual names of web resources on the Internet, are descriptive markers with corresponding numerical
addresses called Internet protocol (IP) addresses. When an end user types a web address or an email address, the domain names system (DNS) on the Internet resolves the entered web address into the IP address of the requested web host or email user addresses (Zook, 2000; see also Kleinwachter, 2000; Mueller, 2002; Síthigh, 2010). Special computers on the Internet, called name servers, resolve a web resource address (e.g. www.mol.mn) into an IP address (188.8.131.52 or an IP address block starting with 202.131). The reliability and security of the Internet depend on the effective resolution of domain names.
Domain names consist of top-level domain names placed at the very end, and sub-domain names separated by dots. Top-
level domain names are divided into generic top level domain names (gTLD) such as .com, .edu, .gov, .mil, .net, .org, .int, .asia, .africa and country code top level domain (ccTLD) names assigned to certain countries and territories such as .cn (China), .in (India), .ru (Russia) and .sa (Saudi Arabia). There were more than 233 million registrations across all top-level domains (TLDs) and 94.9 million registrations across all country code top-level domains (ccTLDs) in 2012 (Verisign, 2012). Prior to the initiation of fully internationalized top-level domain names (IDN ccTLDs) such as (Arab Emirates), .中国 (China), and .рф (Russia) in 2009, international characters were used in second-level (SLD) or subsequent level domains in both generic (gTLD) and country-code TLD (ccTLD) domain names, and they were referred to as international domain names (IDN) (Cooper, 2008; Xue, 2004).